Origins[ edit ] Alexander Hamiltonauthor of the majority of The Federalist Papers The Federal Convention sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September On September 27,"Cato" first appeared in the New York press criticizing the proposition; "Brutus" followed on October 18, In response, Alexander Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York. He wrote in Federalist No.
Ehrman clarifies that the name "Son of Panthera" Roman who allegedly was the seducer of Mary was a tradition, as scholars have long recognized, that represented an attack on the Christian view, that he was the son of a virgin.
In Greek, the term for virgin is parthenos, which is similar to panthera, implying that "son of panthera" is a pun on "son of a virgin". In other words, his mother Miriam was also called "Stada" because she was a sotah, a woman suspected, or rather convicted, of adultery.
Van Voorst describes this as a spectrum of opinion: On one side stand Johann Maier and those broadly sympathetic to his conclusions such as John P. Meier and Jacob Neusner. Maier discounts accounts with no mention of the name Jesus, and further discounts those that do mention Jesus by name, such as Sanh.
Maier also views that the tradition first seen in the writings of Celsus can not be regarded as a reliable reference to the historical Jesus.
On the other side stand scholars such as Joseph Klausnerfollowing R.
Travers Herford and Bernhard Pickwho believed that the Talmud gives some insight into Jesus as a historical individual. An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence, Wm. The following are among those considered the most controversial, contested, and possibly the most notable. Matthai, Naqqai, Netzer, Buni, and Todah.
Jesus the Nazarene practiced magic and deceived and led Israel astray. Pumbedita says about her: Whoever knows anything in defense may come and state it.
He was a mesit someone who instigated Israel to idolatryconcerning whom the Merciful [God] says: Show him no compassion and do not shield him Deut. With Jesus the Nazarene it was different. For he was close to the government. Specific references[ edit ] Sanhedrin 43a  relates the trial and execution of a sorcerer named Jesus Yeshu in Hebrew and his five disciples.
The sorcerer is stoned and hanged on the Eve of Passover. Jesus wished to be forgiven, but [his rabbi] was too slow to forgive him, and Jesus in despair went away and put up a brick [idol] and worshipped it.
He describes his punishment in the afterlife as boiling in excrement. A herald is sent to call for witnesses in his favour for forty days before his execution. No one comes forth and in the end he is stoned and hanged on the Eve of Passover.
Word play is made on each of their names, and they are executed. It is mentioned that leniency could not be applied because of Jesus' influence with the royal government malkhut. Healing in the name of Jesus[ edit ] Scholars have identified passages in the Talmud and associated Talmudic texts that involve invoking Jesus' name, as the messiah of Christianity, in order to perform magical healing: He said to him: Venice Jerusalem Shabboth Venice Qohelet Rabbah 1: Venice Torah teacher[ edit ] Scholars have identified passages that mention Jesus, as the messiah of Christianity, in the context of a Torah teacher: Munich 95, Paris The son or disciple who turned out badly[ edit ] Sanhedrin a and Berachot 17b talk about a Yeshu ha-Nosri Jesus of Nazareth who "burns his food in public", possibly a reference to pagan sacrifices or a metaphor for apostasy.
It is part of a larger discussion about three kings and four commoners excluded from paradise. These are also discussed in the Shulkhan Arukh where the son who burns his food is explicitly stated to be Manasseh.
The passages identified by scholars in this context are: Oxford 23 As a sinful student who practiced magic and turned to idolatry[ edit ] Passages in Sanhedrin b and Sotah 47a refer to an individual Yeshu that some scholars conclude is a reference to Jesus, regarded as the messiah of Christianity.
In these passages, Jesus is described as a student of Joshua ben Perachiah second half of the 2nd century BCEand he Jesus was sent away for misinterpreting a word that in context should have been understood as referring to the Inn; he instead understood it to mean the innkeeper's wife the same word can mean "inn" and "hostess".
Is this what you are occupied in? Some passages that have been identified by scholars as mentioning Jesus, as the messiah of Christianity, in this context include: Barco, Vilna Babylonian Sotah 47a — "not as Yehoshua b."50 Essays meets the needs of a wide variety of classrooms.
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