Beggs, and Mick Renneisen.
Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recom- mendation of their use. EPA and DMWW would like to thank the following people and organizations for their substantial contributions to the contents of this handbook: ORD, working with DMWW, produced this handbook to transfer the lessons learned from the proj- ect and reduce the resources needed to implement similar projects in other communities.
You can also download a PDF version of the handbook from this site. If so, your water utility and the community residents it serves would benefit from a project that uses new and innovative methods and technologies to deliver timely, accurate, and under- standable information about the quality of drinking water and source water in your area.
This handbook has been designed with this goal in mind: The handbook provides a detailed case study of DMWW's project to encourage medium and large water utilities or communities responsible for supplying drinking water to con- sider adopting strategies for delivering timely data to the public.
Although small water systems and communities not subject to federal drinking water regulations are not likely to have the resources to implement such a project, these entities may also find some portions of this handbook valuable. The EMPACT program promotes new and innovative approaches to collecting, managing, and communicating environmental information to the public.
Working with communities in of the largest metropolitan areas across the country, the program takes advantage of new technologies to provide community members with timely, accurate, and understandable environmental information they can use to make informed, day-to-day decisions about their lives.
EMPACT projects cover a wide range of environmental issues, including water quality, ground water contamination, smog, ultraviolet radiation, and overall ecosystem quality. EPA and the states develop and enforce standards to protect the quality of drinking water, and water utilities must meet these standards.
Producing high quality drink- ing water ideally follows an approach with multiple barriers to prevent contaminants from reaching consumers. The earliest possible barrier i. Therefore, strong environmental stewardship is an essential element of drinking water supply.
Drinking water is water that is conveyed to residences and businesses from a public water system. Typically, this water is treated by a water utility to make it potable. Drinking water is sometimes referred to as finished water. Source water can originate in either a surface source such as a lake, river, or reservoir or a subsurface source such as a well.
Water utilities collect and analyze drinking water and source water quality data to facilitate the following: Water utilities are challenged every day.
The regulatory environment is changing. Science is also changing, as is our knowledge of water quality and how it impacts consumers and the environment is changing. Water utilities continually strive to improve the performance of their treatment and distribution systems, make improvements to meet new challenges, and communicate with consumers in an honest and timely manner.
Through case studies of these four unique projects, the Water Data and Tools initiative is designed to demonstrate local capability to collect and communicate water quality data that are meaningful, defensible, and easily accessible, and build a framework to encourage other communities to do the same through technology transfer and outreach.
All members of a community have a right to know about the current quality of their drink- ing water because drinking water quality affects public health. The need to provide timely drinking water quality data is most urgent when these data indicate an acute result that can have immediate effects on a utility's customer population.
Your efforts to provide your cus- tomers with timely information on the quality of their drinking water will build public confidence in your utility's ability to provide safe, healthy, reliable drinking water. Businesses relying on consistently high-quality water to support a production process can use timely water quality information to determine whether to maintain or modify their processes.
By disseminating these timely data on a Web site, you may reduce the number of phone calls to your utility from consumers or manufacturers seeking specific water quality test results. From a human health perspective, the urgency for timely source water quality information is typically less than that for drinking water quality information.
However, the timeliness of source water quality information may be critical when spills or other environmental emergencies occur in the watershed.
The presentation of timely source water quality data and trends on a Web site can inform and influence the behavior of residents in your water- shed. This heightened public awareness would not only enable local residents and public officials to make informed decisions about land use management and water conservation measures, but would also encourage affected groups to take a larger and more proactive role in instituting practices to restore and preserve the quality of source waters.
Serving overpeople, DMWW operates two major water treatment plants and pumps an average of 43 million gallons of water per day.
DMWW's EMPACT project strives to encourage Des Moines residents, as well as the entire watershed community, to assume a larger role in restoring and preserving the quality of source waters in the community. This cost should give you an idea of how much a comparable project might cost your utility.
However, every project that communicates timely informa- tion about drinking water and source water quality is unique to its community. Therefore, the cost of your project will also be unique. The handbook intends to encourage medium and large water utilities or communities responsible for supplying drinking water to consider adopting strategies for delivering timely data to the public.
Although small water systems and com- munities not subject to federal drinking water regulations are not likely to have the resources to implement such a project, these entities may also find some portions of this handbook valuable.I researched a bunch of recreational management problems and I came across a long and detailed list of some.
Two that I decided to look at are about keeping fitness equipment clean and maintaining consistent water quality in a pool.
Recreation facility management is a complex responsibility. Professionals in this field are responsible for various types of facilities--recreation centers, water parks and pools, playgrounds, parks, fitness centers, sport complexes, and resorts--each with its own set of goals and challenges.
Recreation Facility Management: Design, Development, Operations, and Utilizationprovides students and. Clean equipment every day. Removing sweat, dust and dirt will help the electronics and upholstery last longer.
When cleaning a piece of equipment's exterior, apply a mixture of mild liquid antibacterial detergent and water only to a rag—not directly on the machine, so the cleaning solution can't leak into the machine and cause electronics to short. With cable weights and other pieces of exercise equipment that use weights based on a pulley system, it is important to check for frayed cables.
Cables that exhibit signs of wear should be replaced and the machine placed on hiatus until such maintenance is completed. . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The development of this handbook was managed by Scott Hedges (U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory) with the support of ERG, Inc., an EPA contractor.
Under direct management, the EMFF should support the promotion of clean and healthy seas and the implementation of the European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy developed in the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of