September 11 On Tuesday September 11, the unthinkable happened in America. C were struck by airplanes that were hijacked by terrorists.
Contemporary American responses to the threat of bioterror- ism represent a mixture of familiar and novel themes in the history of public health. As in previous eras, bioterrorism preparedness raises questions about microbial transgression of borders, civil liberties, and the place of biomedical and surveillance technology in public health.
More historical inquiry into bioterrorism is urged. Did the world really change that day? Historians, now and for the foreseeable future, will have to assess the veracity and the consequences of this truism. It will not be an easy task. Yet we must do so, because understanding the context of and precedents for these events is a necessary component of understanding their causes and consequences.
That considerable political and institutional interests are arrayed against this sort of analysis only makes it more vital. We must also do so because the axiom of historical exceptionalism threatens to hijack our understanding of related issues.
Long before last September, American scientists and public health experts were using the threat of novel diseases, both natural and human-created, as a rationale for making changes in public health. On a deeper level, contemporary responses to the threat of bioter- rorism occur within an institutional framework, and draw on a reper- toire of metaphors, images, and values that have been shaped by historical forces far older and more complicated than this single outbreak.
Historians can and must shed light on the origins and implications of current events, forcefully elucidating how the world did not change last September. Naturally suspi- cious of the claim to novelty, historians might be excused for seeing only echoes of the past in present events.
For examples of engaged scholarship of this sort, see Allan M. Rosenberg, The Cholera Years: Beyond that, and most pertinent for historians of medicine and public health, American concerns regarding bioterrorism are part of a longer history of fears about disease more generally.
As in earlier eras, American concerns about global social change are refracted through the lens of infectious disease. Biological weapons have generated fear for some time.
This treaty, negotiated after chemical weapons killed or injured over a million soldiers and civilians in World War I, proscribed the initial use of chemical and biological weapons, but did not prohibit research, development, or stockpiling of these arms, and a number of signatories reserved the right to retaliate in kind.
Two informative sources on the early history of the United States BW program are: Lederberg, deeply concerned about biologi- cal weapons for a number of decades, had been active in public debate over international weapons conventions since the nineteen-sixties.
Among his recent publications, see Joshua Lederberg, ed.
Limiting the Threat Cambridge: I am indebted to Warwick Anderson for the Burnet reference. Proposed responses to bioterrorism have similar historical analogs. Judith Walzer Leavitt, Typhoid Mary: These issues are discussed in chapter four of my doctoral dissertation.
For historians, the tone of these recommendations is immediately recognizable. Flush with the promise of the bacteriological revolution, early twentieth-century American public health began to turn its attention and funding from broad preventive measures toward clinical medicine, laboratory science, and the early detection of disease.Effect on Society Social Effect.
Since 9/11 we have ramped up our national security, investments, concerns, and spending. We our faced with a security envelope in the US and our airport now has severe surveillance. We launched a war in Afghanistan which has turned into the longest war we have ever fought. The war has cost the US two trillion.
The cultural influence of the September 11 attacks (9/11) has been profound and long-lasting. The impact of 9/11 has extended beyond geopolitics into society and culture in general.
Immediate responses to 9/11 included greater focus on home life and time spent with family, higher church attendance, and increased expressions of patriotism such as the flying of American flags. The Influence of September On the American Economy. The atrocious attacks on New York's twin towers were aimed at an iconic symbol of US wealth and economic domination/5(1).
THE 9/11 COMMISSION REPORT.
Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. We present the narrative of this report and the recommendations that flow from it to the President of the United States, the United States Congress, and the American people for their consideration.
The first part of this essay deals with the crucial scientific evidence that emerged in early , the significance of this evidence in relation to the official story of 9/ Social Control Essay.
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, , use of electronic surveillance as a tool for social control increased significantly. Properly socialized individuals come to care about what others think of them and thus are good candidates for the influence of informal social control.
The smiles, compliments.