Visit the Fugues of the Well-Tempered Clavier Flash or Shockwavewhere all of the techniques discussed on this page are illustrated in interactive hypermedia. At its simplest, a fugue might consist of one exposition followed by optional development. A more complex fugue might follow the exposition with a series of developments, or another exposition followed by one or more developments. Because its outline is so variable, it is preferable to speak of the fugue as a "process" rather than "form" per se.
Instrumentation[ edit ] Both editions of the Art of Fugue are written in open scorewhere each voice is written on its own staff. This has led some to conclude  that the Art of Fugue was intended as an intellectual exercise, meant to be studied more than heard.
The renowned keyboardist and musicologist Gustav Leonhardt argued that the Art of Fugue was probably intended to be played on a keyboard instrument and specifically the harpsichord. The range of none of the ensemble or orchestral instruments of the period corresponds to any of the ranges of the voices in The Art of Fugue.
Finally, since the bass voice in The Art of Fugue occasionally rises above the tenor, and the tenor becomes the "real" bass, Leonhardt deduces that the bass part was not meant to be doubled at foot pitch, thus eliminating the pipe organ as the intended instrument, leaving the harpsichord as the most logical choice.
This is something Bach would never have allowed to happen. There is also the possibility that The Art of Fugue was not intended for one single type of instrument, but instead for whatever instruments were at hand. It breaks off abruptly in the middle of its third section, with an only partially written measure The combination of all four themes would bring the entire work to a fitting climax.
Wolff also suspected that Bach might have finished the fugue on a lost page, called "fragment X", on which the composer attempted to work out the counterpoint between the four subjects. In Luciano Berio arranged the contrapunctus for orchestra; while Berio did not complete the fugue in the usual sense, he produced a performing version that allows the composition to fade away gracefully.
InNew Zealand organist and conductor Indra Hughes completed a doctoral thesis about the unfinished ending of Contrapunctus XIV, proposing that the work was left unfinished not because Bach died, but as a deliberate choice by Bach to encourage independent efforts at a completion.
Sylvestre and Costa  reported a mathematical architecture of The Art of Fugue, based on bar counts, which shows that the whole work was conceived on the basis of the Fibonacci series and the golden ratio.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Countersubject definition: (in a fugue) the theme in one voice that accompanies the statement of the subject in | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Whether you're in search of a crossword puzzle, a detailed guide to tying knots, or tips on writing the perfect college essay, Harper Reference has you covered for all your.
The Art of Fugue is based on a single subject Furthermore, none of the melodic shapes that characterize Bach's ensemble writing are found in the work, in the countersubject to this fugue, the composer died.") This account is disputed by modern scholars, as the manuscript is clearly written in Bach's own hand, and thus dates to a time.
A fugue begins with an exposition.
After the exposition the composer alternates between episodes and subject presentations. Each fugue has its own structure that changes according to the composers invention and needs. The Exposition. The first section of the fugue is the exposition.
‘Normally there is a dynamic interplay between subject and countersubject in a fugue, but here the energy is concentrated in the subject, with the countersubject limply shadowing it in thirds and sixths.’. Video: The Fugue: Bach, Definition & Examples.
Parts of a Fugue - Countersubject. Then, the magic starts to happen, and we kick it up into second gear. Analyzing Texts Using Writing. I. Definition of a Fugue Polyphonic procedure involving a specified number of voices in which a motive (subject) is exposed, in each voice, in an initial tonic/dominant relationship, then developed by contrapuntal means.